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Aِِ
Android

Android is a Linux-based smartphone operating system and software platform created by Google.

The Android platform is supported by the Open Handset Alliance and is open source. Any manufacturer can use Android on their phones and software written for the platform will run on Android-based devices regardless of manufacturer.

Android competes with Windows Mobile, S60, and other smartphone platforms.



AMOLED display =(Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode)l 


AMOLED is an emerging display technology used in portable devices like mobile phones. Active-matrix OLED displays provide the same performance as their passive-matrix OLED counterparts, but they consume significantly less power.

This advantage makes active-matrix OLEDs well suited for portable electronics where battery power consumption is critical.




Accelerometer


The accelerometer is a built-in electronic component that measures tilt and motion. It is also capable of detecting rotation and motion gestures such as swinging or shaking.

The most common use for it is to activate auto screen rotation on mobile devices when the user changes their orientation from portrait to landscape or vice-versa.
Another modern application for the accelerometer is to control the mobile device music player with gestures (Sony Ericsson Shake control or Samsung Motion play technologies).
Accelerometers are also utilized for enriching the gaming controls (navigating by tilting the device instead of by pressing keys).



B

Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks.

There are two important parameters of Bluetooth devices - class and supported profiles.
"Class" signifies the distance at which a Bluetooth connection is possible. Most mobile devices are Class 2, which means they have a range of up to 10 m. Class 1 devices are rare and have a range of up to 100 feet.
A "profile" is a type of Bluetooth connection. The most common are the Headset (HSP) and Handsfree (HFP) profiles that enable the device to connect to a wireless headset or handsfree.





Broadband

In data communications, a "broadband connection" is a connection with a high speed of data transfer (greater than 56 kbps). Generally, it is fast enough to support streaming video



C

Capacitive Touchscreen


Capacitive touch sensors are used either as buttons or on touchscreens. They work by sensing the electrical properties of the human body instead of pressure and generally they don't work with a stylus so they don't allow handwriting recognition. However, capacitive touchscreens feel more sensitive than their resistive counterparts.





cHTML =Compact HyperText Markup Language



cHTML is a simplified version of HTML with features such as the accesskey attribute for numpad-optimized web navigation, phone number shortcuts for links, and emoji pictorial characters.
cHTML is used exclusively for iMode, a service that is offered only in Japan and several European countries.
Most phones use the older WML format or the newer XHTML Mobile Profile.

D





Data-capable



A data-capable phone can serve as a modem to connect a computer to the Internet or another system. Some phones allow faxes to be sent and received (if there is network support for that).



DVB-H =Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld




A European standard specifically for the broadcasting of television content to hand-held devices based on DVB-T.
As of 2007, live trial runs of DVB-H have started in many European countries, as well as other countries around the world
.


E

EDGE =Enhanced Data for Global Evolution

EDGE (also known as Enhanced GPRS or EGPRS) is a data system used on top of GSM networks. It provides nearly three times faster speeds than the outdated GPRS system. The theoretical maximum speed is 473 kbps for 8 timeslots but it is typically limited to 135 kbps in order to conserve spectrum resources. Both phone and network must support EDGE, otherwise the phone will revert automatically to GPRS.

EDGE meets the requirements for a 3G network but is usually classified as 2.75G


EMS =Enhanced Message Service

EMS or the Enhanced Messaging Service is an extension of SMS, which allowed mobile phone to send and receive messages that have special text formatting (such as bold or italic), animations, graphics, sound effects and ringtones.

EMS is an intermediate technology between SMS and the rich multimedia messages otherwise known as MMS.


F

Flash Memory

Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Non-volatile means that no power is needed to maintain the information stored on the chip.

It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards and USB flash drives as solid state storage and its main purpose is an inexpensive way of storing or transferring data between computers and other digital products. It’s used as primary storage memory on various portable devices due to its low cost, compact size, great physical endurance and low power consumption.

The most popular types of flash memory are NAND and NOR


FM Transmitter


An FM transmitter allows a phone to broadcast music stored in its memory on FM frequencies, so that it can be tuned into a nearby FM receiver such as a a car radio.

FM transmitters are not a common feature on mobile phones, but such modern models do exist. The mobiles transmit at low power so interference with regular FM radio stations is highly likely – especially in dense urban environments where most of the FM spectrum is already populated by live radio broadcasts.



G
GPRS


General Packet Radio Service is a packet-switching technology that enables data transfers through cellular networks. It is used for mobile internet, MMS and other data communications. In theory the speed limit of GPRS is 115 kbps, but in most networks it is around 35 kbps. Informally, GPRS is also called 2.5G.


GPS =Global Positioning System

Global Positioning System was developed by the United States' Department of Defense. It uses between 24 and 32 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals. This enables GPS receivers to determine their current location, time and velocity. The GPS satellites are maintained by the United States Air Force.
GPS is often used by civilians as a navigation system. On the ground, any GPS receiver contains a computer that "triangulates" its own position by getting bearings from at least three satellites. The result is provided in the form of a geographic position - longitude and latitude - to, for most receivers, within an accuracy of 10 to 100 meters. Software applications can then use those coordinates to provide driving or walking instructions.
Getting a lock on by the GPS receivers on the ground usually takes some time especially where the receiver is in a moving vehicle or in dense urban areas. The initial time needed for a GPS lock is usually dependent on how the GPS receiver starts. There are three types of start - hot, warm and cold.
The hot start is when the GPS device remembers its last calculated position and the satellites in view, the almanac used (information about all the satellites in the constellation), the UTC Time and makes an attempt to lock onto the same satellites and calculate a new position based upon the previous information. This is the quickest GPS lock but it only works if you are generally in the same location as you were when the GPS was last turned off.
The warm start is when the GPS device remembers its last calculated position, almanac used, and UTC Time, but not which satellites were in view. It then performs a reset and attempts to obtain the satellite signals and calculates a new position.



H

HTML =Hypertext Markup Language

A standard markup language used to create web pages.
It was designed with desktop computers in mind and web pages may have reduced usability when viewed on devices with smaller screens and limited input options (as is the case with most mobile phones).
There is a newer format called XHTML that is better suited for mobile devices.



HSDPA =High-Speed Downlink Packet Access

An upgrade for UMTS networks that doubles network capacity and increases download data speeds by five times or more.
The service was initially deployed at 1.8 Mbps but upgrades to the networks and new user devices led to increased rates of 3.6 Mbps, followed by 7.2 Mbps


Hot Swap

Inserting or removing an external peripheral device (such as flash memory or hard drive) from a host (a mobile phone or desktop computer) while the host is still operating.
"Hot swappable" refers to a component's ability to be operated in such way.
In mobile phones, this usually refers to the ability to insert or remove the memory card without switching off the device

I
IP (Internet Protocol)



IP is the the protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched network used in most publicly accessible networks today. Connections that mobile devices make to GPRS, 3G and similar networks are made using IP.



IMAP =Internet Message Access Protocol 


An Internet protocol used by email clients to access messages from a server. IMAP is a newer alternative to POP3.
Unlike POP3, which only downloads the messages, IMAP synchronizes them with the email server and tracks changes in their status. Another feature of IMAP is that it allows messages to be organized by folders and the email client setup to use IMAP access will also synchronize the folders beside the emails themselves

J

Java

Often stands for "Java ME" (the new name of J2ME, Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition). Java ME is a platform for applications running on mobile phones. These, mainly small, applications (e.g. games) can be downloaded from the Internet directly to the phone using its built-in web-browser

K

Kbps =Kilobits per second

A unit of data transfer rate equal to 1024 bits per second.


L

LCD =Liquid Crystal Display


A liquid crystal display is the most common display type among mobile phones because of its low power consumption and good image quality. They are generally easy to read, even under direct sunlight.
The smallest element of an image displayed on a LCD is the pixel. Each pixel normally consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters.
Some of the types of LCD displays are STN, TFT and TFD. The first one, STN, offers low cost and low power consumption, but low image quality. TFT features greater image quality and response time, yet its displays are more expensive and need more power.
Three other types of LCDs are transmissive, reflective, or transflective. Transmissive displays offer nicer image quality in low or medium ambient light, while reflective ones work best in bright ambient light. Transflective displays combine the best of both




Loudspeaker

The loudspeaker is a small sound driver fitted within a mobile phone, or other communication device, which is used to produce sound. Traditionally, loudspeakers on mobile phones are used to produce sound alerts for events such as incoming calls, incoming messages and alarms.
Since mobile phones have started doubling as portable music players in recent years, users have begun using their built-in speakers for playback of music. Acknowledging this new type of use of the mobile phone loudspeaker, manufacturers have begin to equip their music or video-centric mobiles with more powerful loudspeakers or even a pair of loudspeakers for accurate stereo reproduction and enhanced spatial effects.
Loudspeakers are also used to reproduce voice calls out loud, thus allowing users to deal with calls hands-free or even have conference calls with others in the same room (that use of the mobile phone is called a speakerphone, which is not to be confused with a loudspeaker).




Li-Ion =Lithium Ion

This stands for a type of rechargeable battery. They are much lighter than earlier battery types (NiCd and NiMH), have a long life cycle and generally don't suffer from the so-called "memory effect".


M



Megapixel

One million pixels. Pixel comes from "pix" (for "picture") and el (for "element"). A pixel is the smallest piece of information on an image. This is a unit for measuring image resolution, and the more pixels a picture consists of, the more detailed it is.


microSD

A memory card is a flash memory data storage device used in a wide range of digital devices such as mobile phones, digital cameras, PDAs, music players, etc. They are small, rugged and offer high re-record ability.
There is a wide range of memory card formats. MicroSD (SD stands for "Secure Digital") and M2 (memory Stick Micro) are the smallest at the current time. The microSD format was originally called TransFlash or T-Flash.


MMS =Multimedia Messaging Service

Abbreviated as MMS, the Multimedia Messaging Service is a store and forward messaging service that allows subscribers to exchange multimedia files as messages.
MMS supports the transmission of various media types: text, picture, audio, video, or a combination of all four. The originator can easily create a Multimedia Message, by snaping a photo with the phone camera, or by using images and sounds stored previously in the phone (or downloaded from a web site).
If the recipient phone is not switched on or it has not been setup to receive MMS messages, the Multimedia Message will be stored in a special repository offered by the GSM carrier.
In order to send or receive a MMS, the user must have a compatible phone that is running over a GPRS or 3G network. Most current mobile phones and operator networks support MMS.
The maximum message size (along with the attachments) is generally limited to 300KB (MMS 1.2), but recently the MMS 1.3 standard has allowed for a maximum size of 600KB. Wireless carriers however can impose their own size restrictions. Whenever possible we will try and state the MMS version supported by the individual handsets in our database.


Memory card slot

A special slot for inserting a memory card. Memory cards allow you to expand the phone's built-in memory (or in the past these slots have been used to add some missing features such as Wi-Fi connectivity).
Memory cards have different capacities and are used to store and transfer files between compatible devices. There are several types of memory cards. The most popular and frequently used by mobile phone manufacturers is microSD; however, up until recently Sony Ericsson exclusively used the Memory Stick Micro (M2) card type developed by Sony.
Memory card slots can have various supported memory card capacities. Depending on the device, card slots can support capacities of up to 2, 4, 8, 16 or even the yet unavailable 32GB

N

Network capacity

Network capacity is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at any given time. This includes the number of simultaneous voice calls and maximum data speeds. Capacity varies by area

O

OLED =Organic Light-Emitting Diode


A display technology that consists of small dots of organic polymer which emit light when charged with electricity.
OLED displays have several advantages over the LCDs. They are thinner, lighter, brighter, need less power, have better viewing angles, contrast and response time for video and animation. OLEDs are also cheaper and easier to manufacture.
On the other hand, LCDs offer better legibility in bright ambient light.


P


PDA= Personal Digital Assistant


A handheld device with basic computing and organizing functions. Most of them have a large touch screen, a stylus and support handwriting recognition.
Normally, they also have faster processors than typical mobile phones and can run more complex software. Most of the PDAs run a standardized OS such as Windows Mobile for Pocket PC or Palm OS.
Today, PDAs are being pushed aside by capable smartphones, which can do all the same functions but also offer telephony


PIN code =Personal Identification Number

In mobile devices, the PIN acts like a password preventing other people from gaining unauthorized access to your device. This is a numeric code which must be entered each time the device is started (unless the PIN security feature is turned off).
In GSM mobile phones, the PIN is normally associated with the SIM card (not the phone) and must be entered each time the phone is switched on. If a wrong PIN is entered three times in a row the handset is locked until you enter another code, called a PUK code.




PTT =Push-To-Talk

A two-way communication service which works like a "walkie-talkie".
PTT is half-duplex so communication can only be transferred in one direction at a time in contrast to mobile phone calls which are full-duplex and both parties can hear each other.
PTT requires the person speaking to press a certain button while talking and to release it when they are done so the listener can answer by repeating the same steps. In this way people control which one can speak and be heard and the system knows in which direction the information should be transferred.
Most PTT systems allow group calls (one person speaks to all the members of the group).
The newest PTT systems use VoIP technology and the signal is transferred over the 2.5G or 3G network



Q
QWERTY keyboard layout


Stands for a standard layout for letter keys on text keyboards. This term comes from the first six letter on the top row of a standard English keyboard and refers to devices that offer a keyboard with that kind of layout.
Such a keyboard makes typing much easier and faster even though sometimes (on mobile devices such as mobile phones) keys are small and placed too close to each other.



R


Resistive touchscreen

Resistive touchscreens operate by sensing direct pressure applied by the user. It can be activated by pressing it not only with a finger but also with a stylus (unlike the competing capacitive technology).
A resistive touch screen consists of a touch layer placed on top of a standard display. The touch layer normally includes two transparent electrical layers separated by a small gap.
Pressing the display's surface causes the two separate layers to come into contact, which creates an electrical connection that can be sensed and located


RSS =Rich Site Summary

A family of XML-based web feed formats used to publish frequently updated information such as news headlines, blog entries, etc.
RSS feeds are very lightweight (especially compared to full web pages) and are ideal for mobile devices which often suffer from limited bandwidth and screen size.



S


SIM


A subscriber identity module is a removable smart card for mobile phones. SIM cards store the required information to identify the mobile device. It also contains data required for voice encryption to make listening in on calls almost impossible (except when the wireless carrier itself is doing the eavesdropping).

In this way the customer ID (and personal number) is tied to the SIM card and not to a certain mobile phone. This allows for a seamless interchange of the same SIM card between different GSM mobile phones.

SIM cards also serve as storage for SMS messages and the user's contacts. Current SIM cards can store up to 250 name/number pairs and up to 50 SMS text messages

SMS = Short Messaging Service


SMS or the Short Messaging Service allows users to send and receive personal text messages directly between mobile phones or sometimes to email adresses. Each message can be up to 160 characters long (when using the default character set) and can be sent to and from users of different operator networks. All mobile phones support SMS.

Recently mobile manufacturers have started offering special reading layouts for SMS inspired by Instant Messengers such as ICQ, Skype, and MSN. The so-called threaded message layout or conversation-style layout displays the incoming and outgoing messages between two participants in a single pane ordered chronologically.


T
TFT =Thin Film Transistor

TFT is one of the best Liquid Cristal Display technologies in terms of image quality and response time. However, it also consumes more power and is more expensive.
TFT, like TFD, is an active-matrix technology. This means a transistor is located next to each pixel, allowing it to be turned on and off individually. This ensures faster response time and greater contrast.

U

USB =Universal Serial Bus




USB is a standard for a wired connection between two electronic devices, including a mobile phone and a desktop computer. The connection is made by a cable that has a connector at either end. One end, the one that plugs into the computer, is the same across all USB cables while the one that plugs into the mobile device can be of various types such as miniUSB, microUSB or a proprietary connector.

USB version 1.1 provides maximum speeds of up to 1.5 MB/s while the current version 2.0 is about 40 times faster. The versions are backwards compatible and the speed is limited by the slower device. Transferring data may require drivers to be installed on the desktop computer but some phones offer "mass storage" mode which means they appear as thumb drives to the computer and no special drivers are needed.


W

Wi-Fi


Wi-Fi is a WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) technology. It provides short-range wireless high-speed data connections between mobile data devices (such as laptops, PDAs or phones) and nearby Wi-Fi access points (special hardware connected to a wired network).
The most common variant of Wi-Fi is 802.11g, which is capable of providing speeds of up to 54Mbps and is backwards compatible with 802.11b (providing up to 11Mbps).
There is currently a new standard in the works called 802.11n (offering twice the speeds of 802.11b) and there are already retail networking devices that support its draft specifications. Currently, there are no mobile phones that support the draft 802.11n specifications.
Wi-Fi is much faster than any data technologies operating through the cellular network like GPRS, EDGE and even UMTS and HSDPA.
The range covered by a Wi-Fi access point is from 30 to 100 meters indoors while outdoors a single access point can cover about 650 meters.

WAP =Wireless Application protocol


WAP is an international standard for applications that use wireless communication. Its most common application is to enable access to the Internet from a mobile phone or a PDA.

WAP sites are websites written in or converted to WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser

WAP websites are now considered outdated as most modern phones have web browsers with HTML support.
  

V

VGA=Video Graphics Array



One of the resolution standards used for images, videos and displays. VGA means a resolution of 640 pixels x 480 pixels.



X

Xenon flash

A xenon flash produces an extremely intense full-spectrum white light for a very short duration. It consists of a glass tube filled with xenon gas which emits a short and very bright flash of white light when a high voltage is applied.
Usually, xenon flashes are brighter than the LED flashes found in most camera phones. However they cannot be used as video light and the condenser they use as a power source needs some time to recharge after each shot.
The presence of a xenon flash on a mobile phone doesn't necessarily mean a more powerful flash performance. The power of the xenon flash is dependent on the size of the condenser used to power it up.

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